Radiation Protection Standards

Radiation Protection Standards

X-ray equipment and lasers

Standards for most x-ray equipment, class 3B and class 4 lasers are based on Australian and New Zealand Standards for that type of equipment and these Standards are essentially IEC Standards. Some equipment standards are also taken from ARPANSA’s “Radiation Protection Series” (RPS), or have been developed
by the Radiation Protection Unit with input from manufacturers or suppliers of particular equipment.

All Standards gazetted under the Radiation Protection Act 2005 reference the source documents that were used to develop them. In the case of the ARPANSA, RPS documents the Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services has received permission from the copyright owner to reproduce text from the RPS
documents.

X-rays

Dental diagnostic
(intraoral)

X-ray equipment sometimes referred to as “bite-wing” or “intra-oral”. These x-ray units use an extra oral radiation source and an intra oral image receptor (film or digital). They are used for imaging single or a small number of teeth in dentistry.

RPA0301

Dental diagnostic (orthopantomograph)

X-ray equipment often referred to as OPG. These x-ray units use an extra oral radiation source and an extra oral image receptor (film or digital), and are commonly used for performing full mouth surveys in dentistry.

RPA0302

Medical diagnostic
(bone mineral densitometer)

X-ray equipment employing a pencil or fan beam used to measure bone density. RPA0303

Medical diagnostic
(computed tomography)

X-ray equipment commonly referred to as CT or CAT scanners. These x-ray units are used to produce 3-D images.

RPA0304

Medical diagnostic
(fixed radiography)

X-ray equipment is most commonly used for general radiography in fixed installations. They can be used with film or digital image receptors. RPA0305

Medical diagnostic
(fixed radioscopy)

X-ray equipment typically known as “II” or “fluoro” (fluoroscopy). This x-ray equipment produces real-time (and recorded) motion x-ray images.

RPA0306

Medical diagnostic
(mammography)

This x-ray equipment operates at relatively low kVp (25 – 30 kVp) and is specifically used for mammography.

RPA0307

Medical diagnostic
(mobile capacitor discharge)

This is usually a mobile x-ray unit often called a “CD” unit. The power supply for the x-ray tube is essentially a large capacitor, which stores electrical energy. RPA0308

Medical diagnostic
(mobile radiography)

Mobile x-ray equipment used in wards or small hospitals. Modern units may be battery operated or plug into standard electrical outlets. This equipment is not powered by ”capacitor discharge” RPA0309

Medical diagnostic
(mobile radioscopy)

These are mobile “II” or “fluoro” (fluoroscopy) units. Commonly used in operating theatres or day surgeries. RPA0310

Diagnostic
(veterinary)

These x-ray units are used by veterinary surgeons. Mostly they are portable (mains operated) units.

RPA0311

Industry
(baggage)

X-ray units used for baggage screening. RPA0312

Industry
(industrial radiography)

These are X-ray units with high output that can operate for tens of minutes continuously. They are used in “Non Destructive Testing” (NDT) for examining, pipes, welds and the like. RPA0313

Industry or research
(enclosed special)

These are x-ray equipment in a shielded enclosure into which articles, products or other materials may be placed, or through which they may pass for examination, testing or sorting, and in which the dose rate in the X-ray beam may be sufficiently high to produce serious injury to part of a person’s
body after a short exposure.


The high dose rate may be the result of any of the following:


(a) use of an x-ray tube intended for x-ray analysis or radiotherapy;


(b) low filtration tube windows;


(c) short distance between tube focus and area of concern; or


(d) operating conditions of the tube (kVp and mA).

RPA0314

Industry or research
(x-ray analysis)

This equipment makes use of the phenomena of X-ray diffraction, absorption and fluorescence. This equipment is generally referred to as XRA and found in industry and research RPA0315

Gauge

This type of “gauge” is essentially an “in stream” x-ray analysis gauge used in mining . The Otukompu “Courier” system is one example of this type of equipment.

RPA0320

Medical diagnostic
(Biopsy)

This type of x-ray unit is used for in vitro radiography of biological specimens in medicine

RPA0321

Mobile Security

This type of x-ray unit is a portable battery powered unit used for on-site investigation of suspicious items RPA0322

Lasers

Laser industry
(class 3 b or class 4 laser)

Lasers used for alignment such as pipe laying or cutting or metal or plastics. RPA0316

Low intensity laser
(class 3 b laser)

Low intensity laser therapy sometimes used in physiotherapy, podiatry and wound healing.

RPA0318

Laser entertainment
(class 3 b or class 4 laser)

Lasers used for projecting displays. For example outdoor presentations/advertising or indoor at music venues.

RPA0319

Laser health care and cosmetic
(class 3 b or class 4 laser)

Lasers used in health care. General surgical lasers, ophthalmology and cosmetic RPA0323

Equipment containing sealed radioactive material

Standards for most sealed radioactive material are taken from ARPANSA’s “Radiation Protection Series” (RPS), or have been developed by the Radiation Protection Unit with input from manufacturers or suppliers of particular equipment.

All Standards gazetted under the Radiation Protection Act 2005 reference the source documents that were used to develop them. In the case of the ARPANSA, RPS documents the Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services has received permission from the copyright owner to reproduce text from the RPS documents.

Static radiation gauge
(Rev 1)

Gauges containing a sealed source (typically Cs-137 or Co-60) commonly found in mining and manufacturing. They are used for measuring the density or level of material being processed.

RPA0401

In stream analysis
(Rev 1)

Gauges containing sealed sources commonly found in mining and referred to as “ISA Probes”. They are used to analyse (by X-ray fluorescence) mineral content during the milling and processing of ores.

RPA0402

Mobile soil density and moisture gauge

Gauges used to measure the moisture content of soil in horticulture or the moisture content and compaction in civil construction applications (earthworks and roadwork).

RPA0403

Gas chromatograph
(Rev 1)

A laboratory instrument.

RPA0404

Bench top analyser
(Rev 1)

A laboratory instrument.

RPA0405

Mobile bore hole logging

Equipment containing sealed sources used for analysis of minerals during the drilling of exploration “bore-holes”.

RPA0406

Gamma irradiator

A fixed installation of high activity sealed sources used to irradiate products or items. This is not a food irradiator.

RPA0407

Industrial gamma radiography

A high activity (usually Ir-192) source used in Non Destructive Testing (NDT). The gamma rays are used to produce radiographs.

RPA0408

Beta gauge

Gauges often found in the paper or plastic industry . These gauges typically use Kr-85 or Pm-147 in order to measure thickness of material or ash content.

RPA0409

Bulk mineral analyser

A gauge that can be found in the cement or coal industries .

RPA0410

Portable mass gauge

These gauges are often used in paper manufacturing and are commonly referred to as “drainage profilers”.

RPA0411

Places where radiation equipment is used or material stored

Places where radiation sources (x-ray, laser and radioactive material) are stored and used must be registered under the Radiation Protection Act 2005. In order for a place to be registered it must have a certificate of compliance issued by a person authorised to do this.

The following standards are those used when assessing a place for the purpose of issuing a certificate of compliance.

x-ray

RPA0501 covers places where diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray units are stored and used

RPA0501

Sealed radioactive material

RPA0502 covers places used for storing and/or using sealed radioactive material. For example a research laboratory or an industrial site. RPA0502

Brachytherapy

RPA0503 covers rooms where high dose rate brachytherapy (Ir-192, Cs-137) are stored and/or used. RPA0503

Laser or IPL

RPA0504 covers places where Class3B lasers, Class 4 lasers or IPL used for cosmetic purposes are stored and/or used. RPA0504

Unsealed radioactive material

RPA0505 covers places where unsealed radioactive material are stored and/or used. For example a research laboratory or an industrial site. RPA0505

Diagnostic MRI or NMR used for chemical analysis

RPA0506 covers places where MRI and NMR units are stored and/or used RPA0506